This is a really good article, with some interviews with Android engineers
Hard to tell how much it helps on a Pixel 1, at least it’s not being throttled!
Struggling a bit on P though with the GPS being completely out of whack, works fine for driving, but maps for walking about is useless at the moment
The throttling was so maligned but such a sensible idea.
As batteries age the internal impedance rises, so if the same current is drawn the voltage drops more. Modern CPUs are run extremely close to their dropout voltage to save power and heat, so this additional voltage drop would cause them to crash.
So throttling back the current requirement by slowing them down would mean they run more reliably.