That’s exactly what I was thinking
So if a business opts to use 3D secure is the bank liable?
And the opposite if they dont?
I imagine there may also been a random flag as well.
In the sense of flag on average 1 in 100 transaction per person just because or something much higher
I don’t know the subject well enough, there are others here more informed but I assume the liability for fraud is shifted from the merchant if they use it.
I found quite a good article on the subject that shows when there is liability shift